The infamous Nixon-era term ‘war on drugs’ personifies a set of policies that started to take root in the 1970’s which were aimed at discouraging the production, consumption and distribution of drugs in the U.S. While initial approaches actually led to a reduction of severity of punishments related to the possession of certain substances, in time ‘war on drugs’ became a synonym with ever harsher punishment for drug related offences, such as mandatory sentencing. However, the tough stance on the issue is a mixed blessing. The costs for combating drug trade in U.S. are rising year on year, yet according to the National Institute of Drug Abuse in U.S. the overall use of illicit drugs is growing and marijuana is leading the pack. The number of arrests for drug possession are steadily climbing too. Based on the Bureau of Justice statistics, around half of people serving time in federal prisons and sixteen per cent of state prisoners entered the correctional system of the U.S. for drug convictions. Even people who supported the initial hard-line approach of the program have acknowledged that the financial and human toll is too big and the tactics are ineffective. Continue reading
Competition means that businesses are under constant pressure to be better than their competitors so as to win customers. Competition stimulates innovation and technical progress, and this improves consumer welfare. Consumer interests are thus at the core of competition policy. In a competitive market, each business strives to “be the best”, attracting consumers by cutting prices and increasing the quality of products or services.
With consumers’ help, authorities like the European Commission can take more efficient actions to prevent or prohibit anti-competitive practices that are sometimes found on the market place. The European Commission monitors: agreements between companies which restrict competition, like cartels; abuses of a dominant position, where a major player tries to squeeze competitors out of the market; mergers, when companies join forces permanently or temporarily; and financial support (state aid) for companies paid by EU governments.
Undoubtedly, 2015 has been the refugees’ year in Europe. According to the UNHCR, around 1,006, 768 immigrants have arrived in the European Union fleeing from war and poverty across the Mediterranean Sea. In absolute terms this figure represents half of Turkey’s burden, and proportionally, a shameful comparison with counties as buoyant as Lebanon. However, this burden may be heavy enough to make the veil fall off, revealing the weaknesses of the current EU model, already downgraded by the loss of legitimacy of the last civic features of the mercantilist European project: The Schengen area. Continue reading
Since the October 2015 elections in Poland, won by the right-wing eurosceptic party Law and Justice,the country has repeatedly been in the European agenda because of its so called constitutional crisis. The new government has carried out a series of measures regarding the functioning of Poland’s Constitutional Court, which has been declared unconstitutional by the Court itself. These measures are seen as undermining the quality of democratic checks and balances in the country, a perception reinforced by the government’s decision not to take into account the Court’s ruling, refusing to publish its verdicts.